cultivation of pomegranate and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Punica granatum L
FAMILY: Punicacae
English: Pomegranate
Sanskrit: Dadima
Hindi: Anar
Tamil: Maadhulai
Malayalam: Matalam
Kanada: Daalimbe

DESCRIPTION: Punica granatum L. is a small deciduous tree with smooth, dark grey bark. The thorns are straight, long, pointed and woody. The leaves are narrow and glossy. The flowers are usually scarlet red (occasionally yellow)...

cultivation of curry leaf and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Murraya koengii L.
FAMILY: Rutaceae
English: Curry leaf
Sanskrit: Surabhi
Hindi: Katnim, Karipatta
Tamil: Karuvempu
Malayalam: Karivepu Kanada: Karibevu

DESCRIPTION: This is an evergreen shrub, up to 6m with spreading dark green foliage. The leaves of the plant are covered with minute glands and are also strongly aromatic. The plant bears clusters of small white fragrant flowers. Fruits...

cultivation of hibiscus herb and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
FAMILY: Malvaceae
English: Hibiscus, shoe-flower, Chinese rose
Sanskrit: Japapuspa
Hindi: Jasund
Tamil: Semparuthi
Malayalam: Ayamparutti
Kanada: Dasavala

DESCRIPTION: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is an evergreen shrub that grows up to 30m in ideal conditions. More generally, it is about 2.5m. The leaves are bright green, ovate and coarsely...

Greenhouse Farming: Lettuce

Hydroponics ( Name originates from the Greek words hydro, water and ponos, work) is a strategy for developing plants soil .
Physical plants may be developed with their in the mineral supplement arrangement just or in a latent medium, for example, rock, mineral fleece, or coconut husk.

The Four basic lettuces are

1) Leaf Lettuce

The leaf lettuce comes in numerous hues, from emerald green to dim maroon. Surfaces range from adjusted edges to ornaments...

Cultivation Techniques for Melia dubia (malabar neem)

Site elements

The trees develop well in sandy topsoil, red and lateritic soils with a yearly precipitation of 800 mm or more.

Seed accumulation, preparing and Nursery procedures

Seed preparing and pretreatments: Reports state extremely poor germination in Melia. Learns at IFGTB uncover germination as high as 60 for every penny with no pretreatments. The drupes ought to be evaluated in water to uproot gliding seeds preceding sowing.

Nursery: Seed...



what are the steps involved in development of rice processing?

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  • what are the steps involved in development of rice processing?

    what are the steps involved in development of rice processing?

  • #2
    Despite how rice was developed, the

    transforming was by and large the same, with

    changes just as diverse engineering (some

    effective, some not all that valuable) was advanced.

    Whitten remarks that the work and

    cost of rice transforming were the soonest –

    furthermore maybe most huge – snags to the

    crop's improvement (Whitten 1982:13). Once in

    the stable area, the rice still expected to be

    differentiated from the straw, cleaned of the husk,

    differentiated from the wheat, cleaned (which

    evacuated the pellicle or film), cleaned, and after that

    enough pressed for shipment. The majority of this

    work was so lengthy that the grower

    would invest months transforming his rice, not

    getting the completed rice to vessels for shipment

    until late fall or winter. The vast majority of the fare exchange

    was then directed in the winter and spring

    months (Clowse 1971:129-130). Lamentably,

    numerous grower tried to abbreviate the cycle by

    lessening the nature of their endeavors, bringing about

    commercial perceptions, for example,

    I demand you to go to the

    cleaning and pressing the Rice.

    The nature of both the Grain &

    the Barrels from your Side was

    quite whined of the present

    year (Rogers et al. 1981:575)

    Our Grower are at fault for

    not cleaning their Rice better

    than they by and large do. The

    destitute here [in England]

    have not time or won't be at

    the inconvenience to wash it So

    deliberately as we do in America &

    they are appalled by the refuse,

    rock, & different mixtures found

    in it (Rogers et al. 1981:578).

    Maybe most uncovering was the perception by

    Henry Laurens:

    Our Coopers, our Negroes, our

    extremely bodies very nearly in these

    warm & copious Nations are

    vexatiously indiscreet & frequently

    event me long Strolls & boisterous

    Talks. Yet the Mariners are as

    indiscreet & some what more

    ungovernable than the other

    society & in the event that I don't botch you'll

    discover some insufficiency this time

    likewise (Rogers et al. 1978: 427).

    Gathering happened from right on time

    September to ahead of schedule October when the harvest

    would be cut with sickles and stacked in the

    emptied fields to dry. At the point when dry, the cut rice

    straw was bound in groups or stacks and

    conveyed to the stack or horse shelter, either on the heads

    of slaves or on "pads" fabricated to explore the

    trenches in the rice fields. There the rice would

    anticipate further preparing.

    Sifting, or differentiating the grains from

    their stock (culm) or the straw, was the first step.

    While treading (by either slaves or creatures) was

    at first utilized, amid a significant part of the Pioneer

    period the most widely recognized methodology was to place


    RICE Development, Preparing, AND Showcasing IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

    the packs on the ground with heads outward.

    Slaves would then stroll down the lines of

    groups swinging a thrash to ward off the heads of

    rice, yielding unpleasant rice (Clowse 1971:129; Ash

    1958:i:281; Whitten 1982:12-13). Machine

    sifting did not come into general utilization until the

    center of the nineteenth century (Whitten

    1982:13). Sifting, notwithstanding, was the simplest

    venture, since the rice effectively divides once dry.

    More perplexing – and more work serious –

    were the accompanying steps of evacuating the refuse

    furthermore cleaning the rice.

    The following step, processing, evacuated the

    inedible structures from the grain. At that point the internal

    "skin" or grain would be evacuated, bringing about a

    white shade. As specified prior, the evacuation

    of the grain and germ likewise brought about rice less

    prone to ruin amid the long transoceanic

    voyage. The undesired bodies and debris were

    divided from the grain by winnowing.

    The most punctual system, known as

    "beating," utilized a wooden mortar and pestle.

    Carney notes that this is a misnomer since the

    objective was to get entire, not broken or

    pummeled, grains. To accomplish this obliged a

    gifted tapping and moving movement (Carney

    2001:125; Clowse 1971:129). It is maybe on the grounds that

    of this that period records clarify a gifted

    laborer create 95% unbroken, entire grain,

    while a less gifted, "thoughtless," or exhausted

    laborer could without much of a stretch smash a large portion of the rice

    (Clowse 1971:129).

    The achievement of the beating was of

    vital criticalness to the grower since broken

    rice sold at essentially decreased costs. Carolina

    grower for the most part reviewed the poundings as

    "rice," or "entire rice," "middlings," or in part

    broken grains, and "little rice," or little broken

    grains. There would normally additionally be some

    rate of rice flour. Divided by strainers, the

    rice would be placed up in barrels for business, the

    middlings would frequently be utilized by the grower's

    family or sold on the nearby market, and the little

    rice would be utilized by the slaves (Carney


    To further confound the procedure,

    beating unfolded in two unique operations.

    Amid the first beating the body or husk is

    uprooted, speaking to a generally simple step.

    The second stage is cleaning the rice. This was

    more troublesome and included confining the grain

    (which was in charge of the grain's tan or

    red shade) without breakage.

    The incredible work included in beating

    was early perceived not just as restricting the

    benefit of rice, additionally as genuinely

    exhausting the slaves. Grower searched for approaches to

    automate, amid the 1730s value blast, and

    again amid the 1740s when the work spared

    could be put to indigo. Grower attempted creature

    power, yet the post bellum tidal estates

    delivered so much that not by any means drive

    could keep up (Chaplin 1993:251-253). Chaplin

    quotes Diminish Manigault who, in 1794 cautioned his

    supervisor, "if the Rice made at Goose-Brook is definitely not

    yet destroyed, I wd. Wish to have it sold in the

    unpleasant, to spare Work to the Negroes" (Chaplin


    Much exertion was used in

    endeavoring to create machines to pound the

    rice – permitting quicker and, generally imperatively,

    more exact, processing. Clifton notes that

    somewhere around 1691 and 1768 the South Carolina

    Get together conceded eight licenses for different rice

    sifting or cleaning machines. While none

    satisfied the