cultivation of pomegranate and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Punica granatum L
FAMILY: Punicacae
English: Pomegranate
Sanskrit: Dadima
Hindi: Anar
Tamil: Maadhulai
Malayalam: Matalam
Kanada: Daalimbe

DESCRIPTION: Punica granatum L. is a small deciduous tree with smooth, dark grey bark. The thorns are straight, long, pointed and woody. The leaves are narrow and glossy. The flowers are usually scarlet red (occasionally yellow)...

cultivation of curry leaf and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Murraya koengii L.
FAMILY: Rutaceae
English: Curry leaf
Sanskrit: Surabhi
Hindi: Katnim, Karipatta
Tamil: Karuvempu
Malayalam: Karivepu Kanada: Karibevu

DESCRIPTION: This is an evergreen shrub, up to 6m with spreading dark green foliage. The leaves of the plant are covered with minute glands and are also strongly aromatic. The plant bears clusters of small white fragrant flowers. Fruits...

cultivation of hibiscus herb and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
FAMILY: Malvaceae
English: Hibiscus, shoe-flower, Chinese rose
Sanskrit: Japapuspa
Hindi: Jasund
Tamil: Semparuthi
Malayalam: Ayamparutti
Kanada: Dasavala

DESCRIPTION: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is an evergreen shrub that grows up to 30m in ideal conditions. More generally, it is about 2.5m. The leaves are bright green, ovate and coarsely...

Greenhouse Farming: Lettuce

Hydroponics ( Name originates from the Greek words hydro, water and ponos, work) is a strategy for developing plants soil .
Physical plants may be developed with their in the mineral supplement arrangement just or in a latent medium, for example, rock, mineral fleece, or coconut husk.

The Four basic lettuces are

1) Leaf Lettuce

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Cultivation Techniques for Melia dubia (malabar neem)

Site elements

The trees develop well in sandy topsoil, red and lateritic soils with a yearly precipitation of 800 mm or more.

Seed accumulation, preparing and Nursery procedures

Seed preparing and pretreatments: Reports state extremely poor germination in Melia. Learns at IFGTB uncover germination as high as 60 for every penny with no pretreatments. The drupes ought to be evaluated in water to uproot gliding seeds preceding sowing.

Nursery: Seed...



All About Azolla

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  • #31
    Shanmugasundaram and Ravi (1992) reported the use of Azolla (A. microphylla) that
    nitrogen fertilizers fixing and food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) stored in a low altitude
    paddy (0.2 ha) in the delta area Tanjore, Tamil Nadu, India. The rice was
    equipped with trenches and connected to a main channel and the fish were raised in
    these trenches. Stocking density used was 6 000 / ha for the fry weighing 19 g.
    Both fresh and dried Azolla were fed. Azolla dried was incorporated into a further
    fish feed and applied to 5 percent body weight / day. The formula of this additional flow
    it was said to be Azolla (50 percent), rice bran (15 percent), chicken manure (10
    percent), corn flour (5 percent), sorghum flour (5 percent), broken rice (2.5 percent)
    and peanut meal (2.5 percent). The layout of the space water for fish lowers rice
    yields about 300 kg / ha, but compensates for harvesting of fish. Rice and fish crop yields
    net profit of US $ 258 / Cultural / ha, compared to US $ 207 / Cultural / ha for rice alone.
    In addition, Shanmugasundaram and Balusamy (1993) reported the use of Azolla
    (A. microphylla) as feed to raise Indian major carps (catla, rohu and mrigal) stored in
    wetlands Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu, India bass. These authors used a 0.25 ha
    rice supplied with trenches (1.0 m depth and width) to house fish. Storage
    the density was 3,000 / ha, using a ratio of 1: 1 catla, rohu and mrigal: 1. Azolla was applied
    twice to 2.0 tonnes / ha. Food supplement containing pseudostem and cow
    dung (1: 1) was fed with rice bran to 5 percent BW / day.


    • #32
      and cow dung were incubated overnight before mixing it with the rice bran. Both rice
      and fishing yields increased with higher benefit cost ratios (1.88) in the rice-fish-Azolla
      the integration of the rice-fish culture (1.57) (Table 2.6). Similarly, substantial increases
      the fish yield in rice-fish culture with Azolla compared to rice-fish without Azolla
      was reported by Cagauan and Pullin (1991). Fish yields of Azolla-rice-fish culture
      Tests were higher than those of the rice-fish culture (Table 2.7). Nile tilapia yields in
      monoculture and polyculture of common carp, carp and Nile tilapia were
      1.20 and 1.06 tonnes / ha / year, respectively of Azolla-rice-fish system report
      with 0.63 and 0.70 tonnes / ha / year, respectively, from the rice-fish fields without Azolla.
      In rice systems, including rice-fish culture, Azolla is better incorporated as
      fertilizer during its linear growth phase, when there is a high-productivity, low
      lignin content and therefore rapid decomposition. The value of Azolla as fish feed
      is also highest during the linear growth phase. The crude protein content of Azolla
      is generally higher during this phase. The amino acid content of Azolla increase
      during the linear growth phase and falls sharply when growth slows with
      a corresponding increase in lignin content. Digestibility clearly decreases after
      linear growth phase with increasing lignin content (Van Hove et al., 1987). This is
      therefore important to maintain a balance between the fish population


      • #33
        In the recent past, agriculture as a profession is losing its charm among the
        Farmers. This has been attributed to several reasons; important of them are
        spiraling cost of inputs coupled to the uncertainty in the price of the product. This
        was compounded by the unavailability of irrigation is assured due to exhaustion
        groundwater. This in turn manifests itself in distress to farmers
        significant areas in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala, which
        are otherwise considered developed agricultural areas. Two
        Committees have been devoted to the root cause of trouble and suggested
        alternate income generating opportunities can be a major remedy for such
        disappointment among the farming community. Livestock is one of those
        alternatives available to these farmers in trouble. Again, the quality of availability
        Animal feed is the main obstacle to scientific management
        animals because India, with only 2.4% of the world's geographical area
        supports 11% of the population of livestock in the world. It represents 55% of the
        the population of buffalo world, 20% of the population of goats and 16% of cattle
        population. This put unbearable burden on our natural vegetation.
        Azolla, so far mainly used as green manure in paddy has a huge
        potential to meet the growing demand for forage among small farmers
        taking livestock.


        • #34
          About Azolla
          Azolla is a floating aquatic fern, found in a temperate climate suitable for paddy rice
          Culture. The fern appears like a green carpet over water. The blue-green algae
          cyanobacteria (Anabaena azollae) presents itself as a symbiont with this fern in
          lower chambers effectively corrects the atmospheric nitrogen. The nitrogen content is set
          about 25 kg / ha.
          Green manure, Azolla is cultivated only for two to three weeks in the flooded fields.
          Then the water is removed and fern Azolla is incorporated into the field
          before transplanting rice. Otherwise, q 4-5 fresh Azolla is applied in
          standing water, a week after the rice planting. Azolla dried flakes can be used
          the feeding of poultry and green Azolla is also a good fish food. It can be used as
          bio-fertilizer, a mosquito repellent in the preparation of salads and especially as a
          bio-scavenger because it removes all heavy metals


          • #35
            n addition to agriculture, small and marginal farmers are generally
            able to raise 2 to 3 units cow / buffalo. For traditional methods
            farming, food requirements are met from agricultural residues and very
            farmers can rarely afford to provide fodder and green meal. In rare
            case, the green fodder is provided for the animals in the form of grass
            the field or in some cases feed is grown in the backyard. Even then, the provision of
            Green forage is limited to 5 to 6 months when water is available. Azolla feed
            plot, if implemented by these small farmers can meet the feed requirements of
            the remaining part of the year. Azolla can be supplemented with regular feed of the
            @ animals 2-2.5 kg azolle per animal.


            • #36
              Azolla, if grown for fodder is essentially required to be grown in hygienic
              environment and there should be a steady supply throughout the year. The
              fodder plots should preferably be close to the farm, where the female
              family member can participate in feeding and maintenance.
              5. Culture Process
              Biomass production in natural conditions ie in the rice field is only 50 g /
              m² / day against a maximum output of 400 g / m² / day. The production
              efficiency can be increased by reducing the contamination and competition with
              other algae. This can be achieved by culturing in synthetic bordered pits Azolla
              polyethylene sheet in the courtyard / backyard preferably in an open space or terrace
              where the availability of sunlight is sufficient.
              Although production of Azolla is good in nursery plots, production of Azolla as
              green manure in rice fields; 10% of the area of ​​the rice field and is looped
              Azolla is grown. The land must be puddled and leveled so that standing water
              is uniform across the field. Azolla inoculum is sprinkled into the plot and 45
              kg of single superphosphate per acre applied in the field. The land used for
              azolle culture is not wasted because after scattering in the azolle
              transplanted paddy crops (four days after transplantation) the plot itself may be
              used for paddy cultivation. Even ponds, ditches in the neighborhood can
              also be used for the production of Azolla.


              • #37
                Azolla grown for fish feed, is grown in situ in the pond. Part of the pond
                affected and is completed by a rope made of straw. Once the carpet is
                azolle formed is released slowly to the pond lifting the rope.
                Implementation of Azolla forage plot does not require expertise and farmers
                themselves can handle it with ease. If set up in the courtyard, the area should be
                leveled and lined with bricks. The plots side must be raised to enable the
                water sit. Alternatively, the forage plot can be in a pit with a depth of 0.2 m.
                A polyethylene sheet is spread on the bed such that standing 10 cm
                water can be maintained. Bed width is maintained at 1.5 m to allow
                cultural cooperation on both sides. The length can be changed according to the
                feed requirement of the device. For two cows, two units of length 2.5 m beds
                each with an area of ​​about 8 square meters can meet 50% of green fodder
                Once the size bed 2.5 mx 1.5 m is ready, about 15 kg of sieved soil is
                spread over the bed, which provide nutrients to the plant Azolla. About 5 kg
                pre-decomposed (2 days) cow dung is mixed with water, which provides
                carbon source for the Azolla. Approximately 40 g of nutrient mixture (prepared by mixing 10 kg
                Rock phosphate, 1.5 kg of magnesium salt and 500 g of potassium Murate) was added
                the bed of Azolla. The solution is enriched with micronutrients to the desired amount.
                This not only takes care of the requirement of micronutrients but also azolle
                livestock when powered by Azolla. Sufficient water is added to make the water
                bed level of 10 cm.


                • #38
                  Azolla production scientifically and on a continuous basis requires cement
                  size concrete tanks 2 m long, 1 m wide and 0.5 m deep. Vigilance should be
                  taken to ensure that water may stand in the tank. Ten or more reservoirs can be constructed
                  in an area covering an area of ​​25 square meters. m. The arrangement of the tanks are shown in
                  the photographer. Provisions for the water to each tank must be made by laying
                  pipe and valve over head tank.
                  The soil is spread evenly on the bottom of the tank. The depth of the soil layer
                  should be about 10 cm. Cow dung should be added at the rate of 1 to 1.5 kg
                  square meters of the reservoir area (2 to 3 kg of dung per tank). Single super phosphate
                  (SSP) is to be added at 5 g per square meter of the tank surface weekly. (10
                  SSP g per tank). Fill the tank with water until the water collects at a height of 10 to
                  15 cm above the ground. Allow the soil particle to calm down. Prepare the new
                  Azolla inoculum by adding 2 g of carbofuran prevent infestations. Remove
                  the layer of foam and scum which forms on the surface of the water. The foam
                  prevents the penetration of Azolla growth and root. Allow the tank to stand
                  overnight. The next day, spread around 200 g of fresh Azolla inoculum
                  on the surface of the water. It takes about two weeks for Azolla into a carpet
                  on the surface of the water. The water level in the tank must be maintained in particular
                  during the summer months. To reduce excessive ambient light, shade made
                  coconut leaves can be worn on top of the tank. This also prevents dew formation on
                  the Azolla cultivation during the winter.


                  • #39
                    About 1.5 kg of mother culture azolle seed material brought from azolle
                    maternal grandmother is uniformly distributed on the bed after stirring the water in the
                    Azolla bed. Care should be taken to the source of the Azolla seed.
                    Initially azolle will spread over the entire bed and take the thick form
                    mat within seven days. Ideally, it will give 10 kg of Azolla within seven days.
                    During the first seven days Azolla is harvested. The water level is maintained by
                    apply water every day. After the seven days, 1.5 kg of Azolla can be
                    harvested every day. Azolla must be collected in plastic trays with screens.
                    Azolle collected should be washed with fresh water before being fed to cattle.
                    Washing is necessary to eliminate the smell of cow dung. Washing can be Azolla
                    used as a biological fertilizer for plants grown nearby. Azolla collected may be mixed with
                    commercial feed ratio of 1: 1.
                    Cow dung and mineral mixture kidnapped in azolle mass must be completed
                    at least once in seven days after harvest. A mixture made of cow dung, mineral
                    mixing, soil and water must be added once in seven days.
                    After every 60 days, the soil is removed from the bed, and another 15 kg of fresh
                    Fertile soil is added to the bed to prevent the accumulation of nitrogen and also provide
                    Azolla nutrients. Inoculation expense azolle after removal of soil and water
                    must be made at least once in six months to repeat the whole process again.