cultivation of pomegranate and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Punica granatum L
FAMILY: Punicacae
English: Pomegranate
Sanskrit: Dadima
Hindi: Anar
Tamil: Maadhulai
Malayalam: Matalam
Kanada: Daalimbe

DESCRIPTION: Punica granatum L. is a small deciduous tree with smooth, dark grey bark. The thorns are straight, long, pointed and woody. The leaves are narrow and glossy. The flowers are usually scarlet red (occasionally yellow)...

cultivation of curry leaf and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Murraya koengii L.
FAMILY: Rutaceae
English: Curry leaf
Sanskrit: Surabhi
Hindi: Katnim, Karipatta
Tamil: Karuvempu
Malayalam: Karivepu Kanada: Karibevu

DESCRIPTION: This is an evergreen shrub, up to 6m with spreading dark green foliage. The leaves of the plant are covered with minute glands and are also strongly aromatic. The plant bears clusters of small white fragrant flowers. Fruits...

cultivation of hibiscus herb and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
FAMILY: Malvaceae
English: Hibiscus, shoe-flower, Chinese rose
Sanskrit: Japapuspa
Hindi: Jasund
Tamil: Semparuthi
Malayalam: Ayamparutti
Kanada: Dasavala

DESCRIPTION: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is an evergreen shrub that grows up to 30m in ideal conditions. More generally, it is about 2.5m. The leaves are bright green, ovate and coarsely...

Greenhouse Farming: Lettuce

Hydroponics ( Name originates from the Greek words hydro, water and ponos, work) is a strategy for developing plants soil .
Physical plants may be developed with their in the mineral supplement arrangement just or in a latent medium, for example, rock, mineral fleece, or coconut husk.

The Four basic lettuces are

1) Leaf Lettuce

The leaf lettuce comes in numerous hues, from emerald green to dim maroon. Surfaces range from adjusted edges to ornaments...

Cultivation Techniques for Melia dubia (malabar neem)

Site elements

The trees develop well in sandy topsoil, red and lateritic soils with a yearly precipitation of 800 mm or more.

Seed accumulation, preparing and Nursery procedures

Seed preparing and pretreatments: Reports state extremely poor germination in Melia. Learns at IFGTB uncover germination as high as 60 for every penny with no pretreatments. The drupes ought to be evaluated in water to uproot gliding seeds preceding sowing.

Nursery: Seed...




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  • horticulture-fruits-flowers-vegetables

    please do share information about cultivation of fruits, flowers and vegetables using horticulture....
    Last edited by durga; 07-13-2015, 08:27 AM.

  • #2
    why dont we start with banana ???


    • #3
      hey i have some doubts about selection and pre treatment of suckers, can you briefly explain the process?


      • #4
        Decision and pretreatment of suckers: Select sword suckers of 1.5 to 2.0 kg weight, free

        from afflictions and nematodes. Trim the roots and spoiled piece of the corm, cut the

        pseudostem leaving 20 cm from the corm and grade the suckers to size. To dodge shrink disease,

        spoiled bits of the corm may be pared, dunked for 5 minutes in Carbendazim 0.1% (1 g in 1 lit

        of water) for Rasthali, Monthan, Neyvannan, Virupakshi and other psychologist exposed varieties.

        Pralinage with 40 g of Carbofuran 3 G granules each sucker (Dunk the corm in slurry course of action of 4

        parts earth notwithstanding 5 areas water and sprinkle Carbofuran to control nematodes). Then again, dive the

        corm with 0.75% Monocrotophos, shade dry for atleast 24 hours and plant. Sow Sunhemp on

        45th day; wire it after about a month. This operation decreases nematode create.

        Use all that much hardened tissue refined banana plants with 5-6 takes off. At the season of planting, apply

        25 g Pseudomonas fluorescens/ plant.

        Field availability

        Wet grounds: No preparatory improvement is key.

        Nursery arrive: 2 – 4 ploughings.

        Padugai : One significant mammutti tunneling.

        Slant Banana: Evacuate clean wild and create shape stone dividers.

        Wet territories: Place the suckers at ground level and earth up.

        Tunneling pits

        Yard nursery land, Padugai and Slant Banana: Tunnel pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm in size. The pits are

        refilled with topsoil, mixed with 10 kg of FYM, 250 g of Neem cake and 50 g of Lindane 1.3 %.

        Isolating (Standard technique)

        Blended pack Scattering No. of plants/ ha

        Yard nursery land Robusta, Nendran,,

        Littler individual Cavendish

        1.8 x 1.8 m

        1.5 x 1.5 m



        Wet range Poovan,




        Ney poovan

        2.1 x 2.1 m 2267

        Slants Virupakshi (Sirumalai),

        Namarai and Ladan

        3.6 x 3.6 m 750

        (Right when mixed with


        Grasp high thickness planting for higher proficiency - Plant 3 suckers/ pit at a differentiating

        of 1.8 x 3.6 m (4600 plants/ ha) for Cavendish mixtures and 2 m x 3 m for Nendran (5000 plants/


        • #5
          what are the irrigation requirements for banana plants?


          • #6
            Watering system: Water instantly in the wake of planting; give life watering system following 4 days; ensuing watering systems

            are to be given once in a week for inundated manors of greenhouse grounds and once in 10 – 15 days for

            wet grounds. Flood the fields extensively after every manuring. Utilization trickle watering system @ 15 liters/ plant

            / day from planting to 4th month, 20 liters/ plant/day from 5th month to shooting and 25 liters/

            plant/ day from shooting till 15 days preceding harvest.

            Use of manures

            Points of interest N P K

            (g/ plant/ year)

            Greenhouse area

            Mixtures other than Nendran








            Wet area

            Nendran, Rasthali











            Slope bananas

            In the wake of shaping semi roundabout bowls on tough side, apply 375 g of 40:30:40 NPK mixture, in addition to 130 g

            muriate of potash every bunch every application amid October, January and April. Apply Azospirillum

            furthermore, Phosphobacteria 20 g each at planting and 5th month in the wake of planting going before concoction

            compost application.

            Apply N as Neem covered urea. Apply N and K in 3 parts on 3rd, 5th and 7th month, Phosphorous

            at 3rd month of planting. Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria at planting and

            five months in the wake of planting (This ought to be connected preceding concoction manure application).

            * For Tissue society banana, apply 50% additional composts at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th month after



            For augmenting efficiency take after fertigation method - Apply 25 liters of water/ day + 200:30:300 g

            N: P2O5:

            K2O/ plant utilizing water solvent manures.

            For managing the expense of manures, fertigate utilizing typical composts (Urea and Muriate of

            potash) with 50% of the prescribed dosage alongside suggested measurement of phosphorus as

            basal at 2nd month in the wake of planting. Fertigate at week after week interims according to the accompanying timetable:

            Fertigation plan

            Weeks in the wake of planting N (% ) P2O5 (% ) K2O (% )

            9-18 (10 weeks) 30 100 20

            19-30 (12 weeks) 50 - 40

            31-42 (12 weeks) 20 - 32

            43-45 (3 weeks) - - 8

            Downright 100


            Patio nursery Area: Give mammutti burrowing at bi-month to month interims and earth up. Prune the suckers at

            month to month interims. The dry and ailing leaves are uprooted and smoldered to control the spread of

            leaf spot illnesses. Male blossoms may be evacuated a week in the wake of opening of last hand. The plants at

            blossoming may be propped. Spread the peduncle with banner leaf to forestall stalk end decay. Spread the

            packs with banana leaves to maintain a strategic distance from sun burn.

            Wet area: Structure trenches in the middle of exchange columns and cross trenches at each 5th line. The

            trenches are intermittently extended and the dirt is spread over the bed. Surface diggings may be

            given at bi-month to month interims and desuckering at month to month interims. Uproot the male blossom a

            week in the wake of opening of last hand. Prop plants at or before blossoming. Spread the peduncle with banner

            leaf and the cluster with leaves to evade sun singe. For ratoon crops, in appreciation of Poovan,

            Monthan and Rasthali permit the supporter at blooming of the mother plant and evacuate the other

            suckers at harvest.

            Perpetual banana: Give surface delving with mammutti once in two months. Issue one profound

            burrowing with mammutti amid January – February. Different operations as in greenhouse area.

            Slope banana: Give four forkings in January, April, July and October. Evacuate external sheaths to

            keep the corm inside the dirt and avoid borer. Keep up two bearing plants and two supporters

            every bunch along the form.

            Development controllers: To enhance the evaluation of bundles, 2,4-D at 25 ppm (25 mg/ lit.) may be

            showered in Poovan and CO 1 banana after the last hand has opened. This will likewise help to

            evacuate decrepit quality in Poovan assortment. Splash CCC 1000 ppm at 4th and 6th month in the wake of planting.

            Shower Plantozyme @ 2ml/ l at 6th and 8th month in the wake of planting to get higher yield.

            Micronutrients: Shower micronutrients viz., ZnSO4 (0.5%), FeSO4 (0.2%), CuSO4 (0.2%) and

            H3BO3 (0.1%) at 3rd, 5th and 7th Guide to build yield and nature of banana.

            Group spread: Utilization straightforward polyethylene sleeves with 2% (amid cool season) and 4% (amid

            summer season) ventilation to cover the clusters quickly in the wake of opening of the last hand

            Entomb editing: Leguminous vegetables, Beet root, Elephant foot yam and Sun hemp. Dodge

            developing Cucurbitaceous vegetables.

            Plant security


            Corm weevil: Apply Lindane 1.3% @ 20 g/ plant or Carbaryl @ 10 – 20 g/ plant in the dirt

            around the stem.

            Stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis):

             Evacuate dried leaves intermittently and keep the manor clean.

             Prune the suckers consistently.

             Don't dump contaminated materials in the fertilizer pit. Contaminated trees ought to be removed,

            slashed into pieces and blazed.

             Shower monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/lit of water.

             On the other hand, weaken 54 ml of monocrotophos 36 WSC with 350 ml of water and infuse 4 ml

            (2 ml at 45 cm starting from the earliest stage another 2 ml 150 cm from the beginning) in the

            pseudostem at month to month interim from 5th to 8th month.

            Rhizome weevil:

            Trap grown-up weevils with pseudostem slashed into little pieces.

            Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 35 g/sucker or carbaryl @ 20 g/plant in the dirt around the stem.


            • #7
              Corrosive Lime: Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle; Rutaceae

              Mixtures: PKM1, Vikram

              Soil and Atmosphere: Tropical and sub tropical. Can be grown up to 1000 m above MSL. Profound well

              depleted loamy soils are the best.

              Season: December – February and June – September.

              Planting: Sound seedlings may be planted amid June to December at 5 to 6 m separating in 75

              cm x 75 cm x 75 cm pits.

              Watering system: Water extensively in the wake of planting. After foundation, watering system may be given at 7 – 10

              days interim. Evade water stagnation. Embrace trickle framework for new estates.

              Fertilizers and Manures every plant: "N" to be connected in two measurements amid Spring and October.

              FYM, P2O5 and K2O are to be connected in October.

              Fertilizers and



              st year Yearly increment From 6th year

              FYM 10 kg 5 kg 30 kg

              N 200 g 100 g 600 g

              P 100 g 25 g 200 g

              K 100 g 40 g 300 g

              Spread Zinc sulfate @ 0.5% (500 g/100 lit of water) thrice in a year (Walk, July and October)

              after the rise of new flushes.

              After development: Uproot branches of primary stem up to 45 cm from ground level. Utilization of

              green leaves 30 kg every tree once in 3 months.

              Intercropping: Vegetables and vegetable yields can be raised amid prebearing age.

              Development controller: To build organic product set, spread 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm (200 mg/ 10 l) amid

              blooming. For organic product maintenance, spread 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm or NAA 30 ppm (300 mg/ l) after organic product set



              • #8
                can you briefly explain the plant protection process for acid lime plants?


                • #9

                  Leaf excavator:

                  Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 50 kg/ha or phorate 10 % G @ 15 kg/ha or spread neem seed portion

                  extricate (NSKE) 5 % or neem cake concentrate or neem oil 3 % or imidacloprid17.8% SL @ 2.0 ml in

                  10 lit of water or Thiodicarb 75 WP @ 1g/lit.

                  Aphids :

                  Spread neem oil @ 3 ml/lit or Fish oil rosin cleanser 25 g/lit.

                  Rust parasite :

                  Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 50 kg/ha or phorate 10 % G @ 15 kg/ha or dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5

                  ml/lit or imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 2.0 ml in 10 lit of water

                  Natural product sucking moth:

                   Demolish Tinospora weed host.

                   Snare with matured molasses in addition to malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit.

                   Sack the organic products with polythene sacks punctured at the base.

                   Apply smoke and set up light traps or nourishment draws (bits of citrus natural products).

                  Shoot borer:

                  Prune the shriveled shoots 4 cm beneath the dried parts, Attachment the new gaps with cotton drenched

                  in monocrotophos arrangement blended @ 5 ml/20 ml of water.

                  Citrus Butterfly:

                  Shower two rounds of Bacillus thuringiensis @ 1g/lit or neem oil @ 10 ml/lit amid new flush

                  arrangement is suggested for the administration of citrus butterfly

                  Organic product fly

                  1. Set up goad with methyl eugenol 0.1% arrangement blended with malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit between

                  6 a.m. furthermore, 8 a.m.

                  2. Use polythene packs fish dinner trap with 5 gm of wet fish supper + 1 ml dichlorvas in cotton.

                  50 traps are obliged/ha, fish supper + dichlorvos drenched cotton are to be replenished once in

                  20 and 7 days separately.

                  3.Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar splash as need based

                  Coarse bugs

                   Debark the branches

                   Utilization sticky trap on the shoot bearing the organic products at a length of 5 cm.

                   Utilization dichlorvos (0.2%) in blend with fish oil rosin cleanser (25g/lit) as spread or for

                  plunging the organic products for two minutes.

                   Disintegrate Fish oil rosin cleanser @ 25g/lit, at first in luke warm water, then in needed

                  amount of spread liquid in the sprayer.

                  Tree banding:

                   Band the trees with 20 cm wide alkathene or polythene (400 gage) 50 cm over the

                  ground level and just underneath the intersection of stretching and secure them with jute string.

                   Apply a little mud or natural product tree oil on the lower edge of the band. Then again, put a band of

                  carbaryl swab around the tree trunk leaving 30 cm from the primary stem

                   Take after ground dwelling insect control techniques, for example, annihilation of burrowing little creature gaps, red burrowing little creature homes and evading of

                  citrus trees after natural product harvest which keeps the burrowing little creature movement through side branches.

                   Discharge predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri bugs @ 10 creepy crawlies/tree once the

                  watching of the ants on the storage compartment is halted. Make one to three discharges every annum

                  contingent upon the coarse bug populaces. Make intermittent check amid the first fortnight

                  also, put dried leaf mulch around the tree trunk 20 days after the arrival of the bugs to

                  encourage pupation of the full developed grubs.

                  Tristeza infection:

                  Uproot the tainted trees and devastate. Splash methyl demeton 25 EC or monocrotophos @ 1ml/lit

                  to control the aphids which spread the infection. Use preimmunized corrosive lime seedlings for


                  Nematodes: Use of Carbofuran 3 G @ 75 g/ tree to control citrus nematodes in extreme

                  infestations. Use of 20 g Pseudomonas fluorescens definition every tree at a profundity of 15

                  cm and 50 cm far from the storage compartment once in four months. Soil use of Phorate @ 2 g

                  taken after by soaking with Metalaxyl in addition to Mancozeb 72 WP @ 1 % 50 ml/ cutting/ poly sack/ kg

                  of nursery soil for citrus decrease.


                  Twig curse: Prune dried twigs and spread 0.3% Copper oxychloride or 0.1% Carbendazim at

                  month to month interims to diminish the spread of infection.

                  Scab: Splash 1% Bordeaux mixture.

                  Blister : Instantly in the wake of pruning one shower of Copper oxychloride (COC) 0.3% took after by 4

                  sprayings with Streptocyclin 100 ppm + COC 0.3 % at month to month interims.

                  Tristeza infection: Evacuate the tainted trees and pulverize. Shower Methyl demeton 25 EC or

                  Monocrotophos @ 1ml/ lit to control the aphids which spread the malady. Use preimmunized

                  corrosive lime seedlings for planting.

                  Harvest: Begins bearing from 3rd year in the wake of planting.

                  Post harvest treatment: Treating the natural products with 4% wax emulsion took after by prepacking in

                  200 gage polythene sacks with 1 % ventilation enhances the timeframe of realistic usability for over 10 days.

                  Yield: 25 t/ha/year.

                  Market data

                  Developing Locale Dindigul, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Perambalur

                  Real Markets in Tamil Nadu Dindigul, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Perambalur

                  Favored Mixed bags and Mixtures PKM 1, Vikram

                  Grade Determ


                  • #10
                    how is cultivation of sweet orange carried out, what are the varieties and required soil, climate conditions?


                    • #11
                      Sweet Orange: Citrus sinensis; Rutaceae

                      Mixtures: Sathugudi.

                      Soil and Atmosphere: Profound all around depleted loamy soils are the best for the development of Citrus. pH of soil

                      should be 6.5 to 7.5 and EC of water under 1.0. A dry atmosphere with around 50 – 75 cm of precipitation

                      from June – September and with all around characterized summer and winter season is perfect. Comes up well in

                      tropical zone underneath 500 m.

                      Season: July to September.

                      Planting material: Sprouted plants (Root Stock: Rangpur lime is best, now Unpleasant lemon is too


                      Arrangement of field: Burrow pits at 75 cm x 75 cm x 75 cm in size at 7 x 7 m separating. Top off the pits

                      with top soil and 10 kg of FYM. Plant the grew plants in the focal point of the pits and stake it.

                      Watering system: Quickly in the wake of planting flood extensively. Watering systems may be given once in 10

                      days. Stay away from water stagnation close to the plant.

                      Composts and Manures every plant: N to be connected in two dosages amid Spring and October.

                      FYM, P2O5 and K2O are to be connected in October.

                      Composts and



                      st year


                      Yearly increment


                      From 6th year


                      FYM 10.000 5.000 30.000

                      N 0.200 0.100 0.600

                      P 0.100 0.020 0.200

                      K 0.100 0.040 0.300

                      Composts are connected in the bowl 70 cm far from the storage compartment and consolidated in the dirt. Splash

                      arrangement containing Zinc Sulfate (0.5%), Manganese (0.05%), Iron (0.25%), Magnesium (0.5%), Boron

                      (0.1%) and Molybdenum (0.003%) once in 3 months at the season of new flush generation. In

                      expansion to that, apply 50 g in each of Zinc Sulfate, Manganese and Iron every tree every y


                      • #12
                        how is plant protection of orange carried out? what are the probable disease that could affect orange plants and what is the control for them?


                        • #13
                          Leaf mineworker : Spread Dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/ lit or Dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/ lit or Fenthion

                          100 EC @ 1 ml/ lit or Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1.5 ml/ lit or 5% of Neem Seed Part Extricate

                          (NSKE) or Neem oil 3%.

                          Citrus root nematode: Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens at 20 g every tree at a profundity of 15 cm

                          furthermore, 50 cm far from the storage compartment for the administration of moderate decay because of the citrus root nematode

                          (Tylenchulus semipenetrans). Soil utilization of Phorate @ 2 g took after by splashing with

                          Metalaxyl in addition to Mancozeb 72 WP @ 0.1% 50 ml/ poly pack/ kg of nursery soil for citrus decay.

                          Little leaf ailment: To control little leaf, splash Zinc sulfate at 1.0 every penny in addition to Teepol 1 ml/ lit of

                          arrangement at taking after stages.

                          1) New flush

                          2) One month after first shower

                          3) At blooming

                          4) Organic product set

                          After development: Evacuate water shoots, rootstock sprouts, dead and unhealthy shoots. Evacuate

                          laterals upto 45 cm from ground level.

                          Intercropping: Vegetables and vegetable harvests can be raised amid prebearing age.

                          Harvest: Begins bearing from 5th year in the wake of planting.

                          Yield: 30 t/ ha.


                          • #14
                            can you please share some basic information about mandarin orange cultivation?


                            • #15
                              Mandarin Orange: Citrus reticulata Blanco; Rutaceae

                              Mixed bags: Coorg Orange and Kodai Orange.

                              Soil and Atmosphere: Sub tropical atmosphere with a height of 500– 1500 m above MSL. A precipitation of

                              around 150 cm to 250 cm is needed. The winter ought to be mellow and there ought to be no solid, hot

                              winds amid summer. Profound very much depleted loamy soils are the best. Soil pH ought to be between 5.5

                              furthermore, 6.5.

                              Season: November – December.

                              Planting: Seedlings and matured plants.

                              Separating: 6 x 6 m, pit estimate 75 x 75 x 75 cm. Planting amid May – June and September –


                              Excrements and Manures: Apply twice in a year amid June and October.

                              a) For Palani Slopes

                              Excrements &

                              Composts 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year

                              6th year


                              Kg/ plant/ year

                              FYM 10.000 15.000 20.000 25.000 30.000

                              N 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600

                              P 0.040 0.080 0.120 0.160 0.200

                              K 0.050 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400

                              a) For Shervaroyan slopes (for trees over 6 years of age):

                              Apply 700:375:600 g/ tree NPK alongside AM organisms (Glomus fasiculatus) @ 1 kg/ tree.

                              Excrements are to be connected in the bowl 70 cm far from the storage compartment and joined. Apply

                              micronutrients as proposed for sweet orange. Apply farming lime or Dolomite at 4 kg/ tree

                              amid January – February once in 2 – 3 years. This ought not be joined with other substance


                              After development: Evacuate water shoots, root stock sprouts, dead and sick shoots. Evacuate

                              laterals of the principle stem up to 45 cm from ground level. Bowls ought to be accommodated every tree