cultivation of pomegranate and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Punica granatum L
FAMILY: Punicacae
English: Pomegranate
Sanskrit: Dadima
Hindi: Anar
Tamil: Maadhulai
Malayalam: Matalam
Kanada: Daalimbe

DESCRIPTION: Punica granatum L. is a small deciduous tree with smooth, dark grey bark. The thorns are straight, long, pointed and woody. The leaves are narrow and glossy. The flowers are usually scarlet red (occasionally yellow)...

cultivation of curry leaf and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Murraya koengii L.
FAMILY: Rutaceae
English: Curry leaf
Sanskrit: Surabhi
Hindi: Katnim, Karipatta
Tamil: Karuvempu
Malayalam: Karivepu Kanada: Karibevu

DESCRIPTION: This is an evergreen shrub, up to 6m with spreading dark green foliage. The leaves of the plant are covered with minute glands and are also strongly aromatic. The plant bears clusters of small white fragrant flowers. Fruits...

cultivation of hibiscus herb and its uses

BOTANICAL NAME: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
FAMILY: Malvaceae
English: Hibiscus, shoe-flower, Chinese rose
Sanskrit: Japapuspa
Hindi: Jasund
Tamil: Semparuthi
Malayalam: Ayamparutti
Kanada: Dasavala

DESCRIPTION: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is an evergreen shrub that grows up to 30m in ideal conditions. More generally, it is about 2.5m. The leaves are bright green, ovate and coarsely...

Greenhouse Farming: Lettuce

Hydroponics ( Name originates from the Greek words hydro, water and ponos, work) is a strategy for developing plants soil .
Physical plants may be developed with their in the mineral supplement arrangement just or in a latent medium, for example, rock, mineral fleece, or coconut husk.

The Four basic lettuces are

1) Leaf Lettuce

The leaf lettuce comes in numerous hues, from emerald green to dim maroon. Surfaces range from adjusted edges to ornaments...

Cultivation Techniques for Melia dubia (malabar neem)

Site elements

The trees develop well in sandy topsoil, red and lateritic soils with a yearly precipitation of 800 mm or more.

Seed accumulation, preparing and Nursery procedures

Seed preparing and pretreatments: Reports state extremely poor germination in Melia. Learns at IFGTB uncover germination as high as 60 for every penny with no pretreatments. The drupes ought to be evaluated in water to uproot gliding seeds preceding sowing.

Nursery: Seed...



Dairy farming, information and questions

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  • #46
    what is the best known suitable temperature for dairy farming?


    • #47
      Protection from warmth and cool are given

      for all age classes; instruments fuse the use of shade,

      fans, water cooling and windbreaks.

      Biological temperature impacts an animal's

      comfort, which, in this way, impacts an animal's behavior,

      processing framework and execution. The temperature

      that the animal experiences and the effect on the

      animal is the net result of air temperature, stickiness,

      air advancement, shade, securing effects of the

      surroundings, and the animal's age, sex, weight,

      change status, development level, position, period of

      lactation, body condition and eating schedule. For example,

      full developed dairy cows are all around prepared to persevere through low

      temperatures better than high temperatures. Right when

      standing up to cool conditions, dairy steers (checking calves) are

      given sufficient support and protected from

      wind and clamminess.

      Heat lessening is particularly basic in various

      dairy locale. Bovines are enlivened to use shade

      additionally, will immediately do accordingly when sun based radiation increases

      (Tucker et al., 2009). Shade is the starting stage in warmth

      diminish. A best practice is for all animals to have

      access to shade that allows simultaneous use by

      the entire get-together. Despite shade, various dairies

      usage fans and water to either cool the air before it

      accomplishes the animal or soak the animal to make strides

      evaporative cooling. Late research shows

      that cooling with water and fans is valuable to

      grown-up dairy animals at lower temperatures than previously

      thought. A valid example, dairy cows advantage from the usage

      of soakers in the morning (if available); this change

      contrasts and lower body temperature later in

      the day. Using warmth lessening sooner (e.g. 73 F or

      THI of 69), gives both cooling and era

      focal points (Kendall et al., 2007; Bryant et al., 2007). It

      is generally endorsed that appropriation fans

      used for cooling be instituted at 65-70 F and, in best

      take a shot at, sprinkling structures be incited at 70-75 F.


      • #48
        what kind of air quality does a cattle stable require?


        • #49
          Cows have a bed that gives solace,

          protection, warmth, dryness and footing.

          Amid their life, dairy creatures make utilization of an assortment

          of resting, encouraging and activity territories. At all ages, in

          best practice, cows have the capacity to stand up, rests

          also, receive ordinary resting stances inside a given

          framework. Variables that can influence these practices

          incorporate the size and arrangement of the freestall

          alternately tie slow down and the space gave to calves. In best

          practice, slows down are sufficiently huge to oblige

          the creature (see Table 3). Both solace and wellbeing

          are enhanced in less prohibitive slows down. Case in point,

          at the point when the neck rail is moved higher and further

          from the control, dairy animals invest more energy standing

          with each of the four hooves in the slow down. This extra time

          spent remaining on non-concrete, slept with surfaces

          decreases faltering (Bernardi et al., 2009).

          Thus, unhindered thrust space permits cows

          to finish the typical rising development. Too,

          longer slows down enhance leg wellbeing and cows spend

          additional time resting in more extensive slows down (Zubrigg

          et al., 2005; Tucker et al., 2004). All around utilized lying

          zones are more inclined to be dirtied and require

          proper fertilizer administration.

          Dairy cows are profoundly energetic to invest energy

          resting, and have been indicated to lessen

          bolstering time so as to secure a lying space

          (Jensen et al., 2005; Munskgaard et al., 2005). It is

          accordingly critical to give a bed that gives

          solace, protection, warmth, dryness and footing.

          Solid, elastic mats, water informal lodging

          can be satisfactory resting surfaces when they are

          satisfactorily had relations with. Cows are more agreeable

          in very much had relations with situations, as demonstrated by

          higher lying times, eagerness to rests and

          enhanced leg wellbeing (Tucker and Fatigued, 2004; Cook

          et al., 2004). Unbedded concrete, hard elastic mats,

          water beds or beddings are not an adequate

          lying surface, as they bargain lying conduct,

          are stayed away from by dairy cattle given the decision and result in

          damage (e.g. Haley et al., 2001; Rushen et al., 2007).

          The most vital indicator of hawk wounds,

          for instance, is the lying surface. Bovines continued

          sand, for example, reliably have less hawk

          wounds than those continued beddings. What's more,

          fitting sheet material materials and excrement

          evacuation help control mastitis. Bedding ought to be

          smoothed and prepped as regularly as is important to

          keep the surface clean, delicate and dry.

          Bedding is likewise dry in best practice. A number

          of examination studies give solid confirmation that

          dairy cattle invest less energy resting in wet sheet material

          then again mud and will dodge wet surfaces if given a decision

          (Fregonesi et al., 2007). Dryness is likewise vital

          for bedding to give protecting properties. This

          is especially vital for youthful calves in cooler

          climate. Dairy calves likewise demonstrate an unmistakable inclination

          for drier sheet material and antipathy for solid lying

          surfaces, showing that entrance to delicate and dry

          bedding is likewise vital for developing calves

          (Camiloti et al., 2012).

          Exercise for tied creatures gives chances to

          prepping the back of the body, social preparing

          furthermore, strolling/running (Krohn et al 1994; Loberg

          et al 2004). Controlled studies demonstrate that work out

          enhances foot wellbeing (Gustafson, 1993), yet

          correlations crosswise over homesteads show that entrance to an

          outside territory is a danger element for some foot wellbeing

          issues, including sole ulcers and advanced dermatitis

          (Bielfeldt et al, 2005; Cramer et al 2009). In the last

          study, all foot issues were more claimed

          in tied cows that had year-round (contrasted with

          occasional) access to the outside. These outcomes

          show that the nature of the activity/outside

          territory is essential and, in best practice, minimizes

          any foot harm. In best practice, tied steers have

          open air access/exercise and the nature of the zone

          accommodated this is clean, dry and of suitable

          flooring materia

          In free lodging frameworks, for example, freestall horse shelters,

          expanded bovine thickness in the pen increments

          rivalry among bovines for access to nourish,

          water and slows down (e.g. Fregonesi et al., 2007). Steers

          administration must oblige these difficulties

          so that all creatures inside a pen get sufficient


          • #50
            can you describe the structure of flooring required for cattle stable?


            • #51
              Under best practice, solid ground surface surfaces

              are fittingly furrowed or textured to lessen

              the danger for creatures slipping, which can bring about

              wounds. Slide safe surfaces diminish wounds

              also, must hold their non-slip trademark

              in the wake of cleaning, scratching or wear. Elastic deck

              is alluring in zones of the office where dairy animals

              stand for delayed periods (e.g. holding region), in

              exchange paths to decrease foot wear, and in other

              regions to lessen the danger of slipping and harm. A

              arrangement is set up to minimize the effect of regular

              changes that effect footing, for example, ice (see

              Addendum L).

              Social Environment

              Cows are crowd creatures. Socially disengaged cows

              hint at anxiety: expanded heart rate,

              vocalization, poo/pee and cortisol

              levels (Herskin et al., 2007, Rushen et al., 1999). As

              a best practice, seclusion is minimized and at any rate

              visual contact with different creatures kept up.

              Administration of Offices

              Appropriately composed and looked after offices

              worked via prepared creature guardians extraordinarily

              encourage effective development of creatures. In best

              practice, fences and entryways are made of solid,

              smooth material and are without sharp questions

              that can cut, cut or wound a creature. Their

              tallness and ground leeway keep creatures from

              attempting to go over or under them.

              Wall hold creatures in assigned zones. Corrals,

              holding pens and bolstering territories by and large are

              for all time fenced, while transitory electric

              wall are frequently utilized around fields.

              Entryways let a creature effectively go through. It is

              valuable to find entryways toward the sides of pens.

              Introduce them to swing internal and outward so that

              the creatures can undoubtedly enter or leave the pen. Under

              best practice, the locking components on doors

              are secure so that creatures can't open the entryway.

              The locking component on a stationary post does

              not make a sharp moment that the entryway is open,

              since this may harm passing creatures.


              • #52
                what are the construction points to keep in mind when construction new born and milk fed calf housing?


                • #53
                  A clean, dry, sufficiently bright, very much ventilated calving

                  range is utilized.

                  A clean, dry, sufficiently bright, very much ventilated calving territory

                  has numerous medical advantages for the calf at the season of

                  conception. Wet, messy calving territories cultivate the development of

                  microorganisms that can attack the infant calf's navel or

                  mouth and make an illness stack that overpowers

                  the calf's guileless invulnerable framework. A different calving

                  zone (maternity pen or enclosure) that is planned

                  to be agreeable, practical and hygienic permits

                  for close perception of the cow and simpler, more

                  successful support at calving. Tolerance and delicate

                  immovability in taking care of calves and cows produce a

                  preferable reaction over does power. Calves ought to be

                  expelled from the cow instantly to counteract

                  transmission of sicknesses, for example, Johne's. A best

                  practice is to clean pens, corrals or enclosures

                  between calvings.

                  Lighting ought to permit investigation of creatures and

                  give safe working conditions. In offices where

                  creatures are routinely watched or took care of, for example,

                  for draining or estrus perception, lighting ought to

                  be diffused equitably. An open air light joined to

                  a corral or building where creatures assemble

                  gives sufficient light to security purposes.